Recording your work
Keep account of the figures that you have modified on your wiki user page. On this page you should list the title of your text, the author, and update the list of figures as you enter them. Assigned texts are listed on the active assignments page. You should keep your status up-to-date on this page so that other researchers will be able to contact you about if they have a question about work you have done. Once you have completed a text please move this information to the completed works page. Finally, please record your weekly process on the weekly updates page. This page will help the research leads track individual and group efforts. This also provides an overview of what each research is working on to the entire team.
Creating a database entry
The first step in creating an entry is to ensure that your term is the primary term. This will be the Greek or Latin term that is typically used to describe a particular figure. For instance, "anesis" is the Latin term for what is called "abating" in English. A best practice rule, for now, is to simply follow Silva Rhetoricae's lead and determine what the primary term is based on their usage. The second step in creating an entry is to ensure the entry has not already been added. In the current version there is search functionality. You will need to search the page and if the entry has not yet been created please click "create" in the upper-corner hand corner of the screen. You will be taken to a new page.
Name of Figure
Remember, the name of the figure should be the primary name of the figure. Typically you can determine which is the primary name by consulting Silva Rhetoricae. Figures should be entered into this field without any capitalization.
Our sources prioritize the last name of the author. It is preferred that the format of "Vinsauf, Geoffrey" is used but if that is not available then just enter the last name of the author. Our sources are directly linked to the definitions and examples.
Synonyms describe terms that have the same, or nearly the same, meaning. Typically these words can be used interchangeably without dramatically altering the meaning of a phrase. In this database we used the term synonym in the traditional sense as well as to mean alternative spellings. Figures should be entered into this field without any capitalization. In Sliva Rhetoricae a list of alternative spellings is provided in the upper right hand corner of the frame containing the figure; ensure that you include alternative spellings in the list of synonyms. Separate multiple terms with a comma--write your term, follow it directly by a comma and then a single space. Be consistent! Due to the complex etymological history of many rhetorical figures, you may come across terms that are defined as two figures in another language. For example, Sylva Rhetoricae defines "affirmation" as the English equivalent for both "cataphasis" and "affirmatio," yet "cataphasis" and "affirmatio" have distinct meanings. In this situation do not list something that is a unique figure as a synonym, try to label it as a related figure (see below).
Trope, Chroma, Move, or Scheme
Tropes, closely aligned with semantics, are figures whose most salient features are conceptual�such as metaphor (e.g., "my love is a red, red rose"), where the literal falsity draws attention to conceptual similarities between two terms, and synecdoche (e.g., "all hands on deck"), where a representative part is conceptually equivalent to the whole.
Chroma, closely aligned with pragmatics, are figures whose most salient features are intentional�such as erotema (rhetorical question; "Do you think I'm an idiot?"), where the question is intended to suggest a proposition not solicit an answer, and apostrophe (addressing someone/something which is not part of the audience; �O, pardon me, thou bleeding piece of earth [Mark Antony to Caesar's corpse, in order to rouse the mob]�), where the remarks are intended not to move the addressee but the �overhearing� audience.
Schemes, closely aligned with phonological, morphological, or syntactic realizations��are figures who most salient features are formal�such as rhyme (e.g., "quick flick"), where the sound calls attention to the word and antimetabole (e.g., "I said what I meant, I meant what I said"), where the symmetrical inversion calls attention to the syntax. Often these figures are have notable shape, structure, or patterning. Move,
This field indicates the types of linguistic characteristic(s) that best mark a rhetorical figure. That is, in what domain of linguistic strategies is the figure realized. Note that one or more may apply, but your choice should be selective rather than inclusive:
phonological refers to speech sounds and sound patterns;
morphological refers to word constructions and forms as well as variations of those forms (e.g., suffixes, prefixes, co-occurrence);
syntactic refers to clauses and phrases;
lexical refers to words and word relations;
semantic refers to meaning;
orthographic refers to lettering or spelling and more.
For clarification on definitions, find a figure with that domain and use the graphic interface to hover over the definition.
Our first definitions came from Silva Rhetoricae, but we have been adding further definitions from a variety of other sources. In order to keep track of the definitions and the examples provided in these other sources we have began using a system of numbering. We also have a primary definition which will be listed as the first definition and can be changed in the edit page. Definitions can be added or removed but one definition must exist on a figure. Each definition corresponds to a number: Silva Rhetoricae is typically the first, so "1." and subsequent definitions are numbered as they are entered. Please note that you must include a parenthetical citation for the definitions as well. e.g., for ploce the definitions are formatted as:
1. The repetition of a single word for rhetorical emphasis. Ploce is a general term and has sometimes been used in place of more specific terms such as polyptoton (when the repetition involves a change in the form of the word) or antanaclasis (when the repetition involves a change in meaning). (Silva Rhetoricae)
2. Ploce is a forme of speech by which a proper name being repeated, signifieth another thing. (Peacham)
3. Post-classical Latin ploce repetition of the same word in a different sense (5th cent.; in classical Latin (Quintilian) as a Greek word). Ancient Greek anything twisted or woven, web, in Hellenistic Greek also used of rhetorical figures. (OED)
Examples are required for a figure to be created and examples will be directly linked to sources. If there is a connection to a definition just use the source that they share rather than linking them by definition number. If you come across an instance of an author quoting someone else as an example please be sure to format the parenthetical citation appropriately and cite the year of the text in which it is quoted in the box provided. Adding sources in parentheses is an optional addition for further clarity or source details.
e.g., for Peacham quoting Cicero: Neither did he thinke ... able to suffer cold, thirst, hunger. (Cicero qtd. in Peacham)
or for citing material from the Bible: God was shewed in the flesh ... and received up in glorie. (Apostle Paul in 2.Tim.3. qtd. in Peacham)
Linguistic domains can behave certain ways and affinities are how we classify their behaviour. A linguistic domain will almost always fall under a specific affinity in order to define a rhetorical figure.
Repetition refers to when a figure uses repetition of sounds (consonants, vowels, or syllables), words, syntax (phrases or clauses) or semantics (concepts).
e.g. Rhyme--Hickory Dickory Dock. The mouse ran up the clock.
Symmetry refers to when a figure pairs two constructions in an inverse ("mirrored") way.
e.g. Antimetabole: When the going gets tough, the tough get going.
Opposition refers to when a figure oppose two structures or concepts.
e.g. Oxymoron: A wanton modesty. Proud humility.
Identity refers to when a figure uses two or more identical elements.
e.g. Ploce: O villain, villain, smiling, damned villain! (Hamlet).
Similarity (partial-identity) refers to when a figure uses resemblance of a concept.
e.g. Simile: My love is like a red, red rose.
Omission refers to when a figure omits expected elements.
e.g. Asyndeton (which omits the expected conjunction, "and"): I came, I saw, I conquered.
Series refers to when a figure establishes a series (through words or concepts).
e.g. Abecedarian: Adorable, beautiful, charming, delightful, exciting, fantastic--you run the gamut from A to Z.
Part of may be used with figures that have subcategories. Part of relationships appear to be required for Schemes only (e.g., ploche is PART-OF antimetabole). Part of relationships may also appear when defining compound figures where it takes two or more figures to define a third figure.
A Related Figure describes a term that is not a synonym but is a figure semantically related to the term you are entering. For instance, the term may be antonym of the figure you are entering into the database--or a hyponym or hypernym for that matter. For instance, if you were adding "anesis" to the database you should include "epitasis" as a Related Figure. Anesis means "adding a concluding sentence that diminishes the effect of what has been said previously;" this is the opposite of epitasis, which means "the addition of a concluding sentence that merely emphasizes what has already been stated". While both figures are amplifications of language they are not synonymous. Please ensure that you understand the difference between a Synonym and a Related Figure before proceeding. Also be sure to properly outline how they relate to one another via the drop menus provided.
Filters are available on the figure navigation page. These are used to sort figures by their attributes and the filters act inclsuively. You can search by one or more attributes and also text search for synonyms an figure names.